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A fire is kindled in the bottom and the dough is slapped against the hot interior walls, yielding curved disks of bread.Many other sorts of oven have been discovered in Israeli excavations.

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Sources generally agree the discovery of the powers of yeast was accidental.

"No one has yet managed to date the origins of beer with any precision, and it is probably an impossible task.

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Archaelogical evidence confirms yeast (both as leavening agent and for brewing ale) was used in Egypt as early as 4000 B. Food historians generally cite this date for the discovery of leavened bread and genesis of the brewing industry.

For six thousand years and more it is the oven, however crude or complex, which has transformed the sticky wet dough into bread.

It is the oven which influences the final character of the loaf; the effieciencycy of an oven, or lack of it, can determine the success or failure of any bread baker's business. It was the Egyptians who first used a manufactured portable oven.

The oven opening was closed with a large stone, sometimes sealed with clay.

Ovens which worked on this principle, but were constructed of bricks or small stones, may still be seen in the ruined city of Pompeii.

When the heat was sufficient the embers were raked out and the pieces of dough placed in the hollows and covered over.

In Jerusalem there was a bakers' quarter where bread was baked in tiers of stone-built ovens, or furnaces as they were called in the Bible.

Larger, bi-level ovens have been unearthed which would have been more suitable for baking commercial quantities.

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