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The works of the great historians of the Hellenistic age (Hieronymus of Cardia, Duris, Timaeus, Agatharchidas, Phylarchus, and Posidonius) are all lost, with the exception of Polybius, and only fragments of his work remain.

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The Romans took full advantage of the difficulties of the Hellenistic states, played on the fear of social revolution among the wealthy Greeks, and exploited rivalries and native rebellions, with the result that they defeated and ultimately absorbed all the Hellenistic states.

Almost everywhere during the second century the increasing inability of the Greco-Macedonian ruling class to prevent internal dissolution is noticeable.

Since Droysen, many historians have reexamined the political and constitutional history of this period; they include B. There was also a revival (perhaps a transformation) of Pythagorean groups, which began to look like a religious sect.

The foundation of new cities (especially in the Seleucid kingdom) and of new villages (particularly in Egypt) contributed to the spread of Greek, but the peasants and the native priests kept the indigenous languages alive.

This collaboration was precarious in Greece alone, where consequently there was no political stability.

The empire of Alexander the Great was the result of the military and intellectual cooperation of Greeks and Macedonians, who constituted the ruling class in the states emerging from the struggles of Alexander's successors.

Euclid, Apollonius of Perge, and Archimedes represent the culmination of Greek research in geometry and mechanics.

Eratosthenes applied mathematics to geography and Aristarchus developed the heliocentric theory, but Hipparchus (who made fundamental discoveries in astronomy) persuaded the succeeding generations with his new version of the geocentric system. Everywhere the new literature and art interested large strata of the Greek-speaking public, which was predominantly middle-class.

Finally, Hellenization is used with reference to Judea, Persia, etc. Erudition developed for its own sake and, notably in Alexandria and Pergamum, was under royal protection.

to indicate the penetration of elements of Greek civilization into territories which, though subject to Greco-Macedonian rule for a certain period of time, preserved their national culture with conspicuous success. Droysen stretched the meaning of the word to signify the period of transition from the pagan to the Christian world which started with Alexander. The libraries of Alexandria were centers of research, besides containing extraordinary collections of manuscripts (apparently not confined to texts in Greek).

In religion the stronger influences came from the native populations, not from the upper (Greek or Hellenized) stratum.

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